تبیین مدل پدیدارشناختی کسب مهارت در دیدگاه دریفوس و دلالت‌های آن برای حرفه تدریس

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی، تهران،‌ایران

چکیده

مدل کسب مهارت دریفوس، نوعی تبیین پدیدارشناختی از رشد مهارت در طی زمان است. این مدل دارای مراحل پنج‌گانه مبتدی، مبتدی پیشرفته، متبحر، ماهر و متخصص است. شخص به میزان افزایش مهارت خود، از قواعد و دانش گزاره‌ای فاصله گرفته و نوعی درگیری ماهرانه با متعلق مهارت خود پیدا می‌کند. تدریس، یکی از حرفه‌های مورد اشاره در ادبیات دریفوس است. رویکرد این پژوهش، کیفی و روش آن توصیفی - تحلیلی است. مسئله اصلی پژوهش، بررسی دلالت‌های مدل کسب مهارت دریفوس در حرفه تدریس است. برای این منظور لازم بود تا در ابتدا، مؤلفه‌های رویکرد پدیدارشناختی دریفوس درباره کسب مهارت مورد بررسی قرار گیرند که نسبت میان دانش گزاره‌ای و مهارت، نقش پیروی از قواعد در مهارت‌ورزی، و جایگاه موقعیت و شهود، از مهم‌ترین آن‌ها به‌شمار می‌آیند. سپس با توجه به این مبانی، دلالت‌های مدل کسب مهارت دریفوسی در حرفه تدریس از معلم مبتدی تا رسیدن به عالی‌ترین مرتبه یعنی معلم متخصص استخراج گردید. یافته‌های این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که برای تخصص در عمل تدریس، معلم باید نگرش خود را از موقعیت‌های انتزاعی ایده‌های نظری به‌سوی کنش‌ورزی فعال در فضای واقعی کلاس درس تغییر دهد. در نتیجه معلم متخصص با رشد در مراحل کسب مهارت، به‌جای اصول انتزاعی به شهود متکی بر تجربه‌های خویش در موقعیت‌های واقعی کلاس درس تکیه کرده و قادر به برنامه‌ریزی خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyzing the implications of Dreyfus’s Phenomenological Model of Skill acquisition on Teaching

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohsen Bohlooli Faskhoodi
(PhD), Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The Dreyfus skill acquisition model is a phenomenological explanation of skill development over time. This model has five stages: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expertise. The more one increases one's skill, the more one distances oneself from the rules and propositional knowledge and finds a kind of skillful conflict with one's skill. Teaching is one of the most popular professions in Dreyfus literature. This research is qualitative and its method is descriptive-analytical. The main issue of the research is to investigate the implications of the Dreyfus skills acquisition model in the teaching profession. For this purpose, it is necessary to first examine the components of Dreyfus's phenomenological approach to skill acquisition, the most important of which are the relationship between propositional knowledge and skill, the role of following rules in skill development, and the position of position and intuition. Then, according to these principles, the implications of the model of acquiring Dreyfus skills in the teaching profession from the novice teacher to reaching the highest level, i.e. the expert teacher, will be presented. The research finding is that to expertise in teaching practice, the teacher must change her attitude from abstract situations of theoretical ideas to active action in the real space of the classroom. As a result, the expert teacher will be able to rely on her own experiences in real-life classroom situations and be able to plan as she grows in the skill development phase instead of abstract principles.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Phenomenology
  • skill
  • Teaching
  • Intuition
  • Methodology
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